Southwestern Turkey experienced a transition from crustal shortening to extension during Late Cenozoic, and evidence of this was recorded in four distinct basin types in the Mugla-Gokova Gulf region. During the Oligocene-Early Miocene, the upper slices of the southerly moving Lycian Nappes turned into north-dipping normal faults due to the acceleration of gravity. The Kale-Tavas Basin developed as a piggyback basin along the fault plane on hanging wall blocks of these normal faults. During Middle Miocene, a shift had occurred from local extension to N-S compression/transpression, during which sediments in the Eskihisar-TA +/- naz Basins were deposited in pull-apart regions of the Menderes Massif cover units, where nappe slices were already eroded. During the Late Miocene-Pliocene, a hiatus occurred from previous compressional/transpressional tectonism along intermountain basins and Yatagan Basin fills were deposited on Menderes Massif, Lycian Nappes, and on top of Oligo-Miocene sediments. Plio-Quaternary marked the activation of N-S extension and the development of the E-W-trending Mugla-Gokova Grabens, co-genetic equivalents of which are common throughout western Anatolia. Thus, the tectonic evolution of the western Anotolia during late Cenozoic was shifting from compressional to extensional with a relaxation period, suggesting a non-uniform evolution.