Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Due to Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with Spastic Paraparesis and Intracranial Calcification due to Mutation in ACP5


Aylan Gelen S. , Kara B. , Eser Şimşek I. , Güngör M. , Zengin E. , Sarper N.

JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GENETICS, 2021 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1055/s-0041-1736560
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GENETICS
  • Keywords: SPENCD, spondyloenchondrodysplasia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, intracranial calcification, paraparesis, CEREBRAL CALCIFICATIONS, I INTERFERONOPATHIES, IMMUNE DYSREGULATION, DYSPLASIA, IMMUNODEFICIENCY, DEFICIENCY, SIROLIMUS

Abstract

Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) is a rare spondylometaphyseal skeletal dysplasia with characteristic lesions mimicking enchondromatosis and resulting in short stature. A large spectrum of immunologic abnormalities may be seen in SPENCD, including immune deficiencies and autoimmune disorders. SPENCD is caused by loss of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, due to homozygous mutations in ACP5, playing a role in nonnucleic-acid-related stimulation/regulation of the type I interferon pathway. In this article, we presented a 19-year-old boy with SPENCD, presenting with recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia episodes since he was 5 years old. He had short stature, platyspondyly, metaphyseal changes, intracranial calcification, spastic paraparesis, and mild intellectual disability. He also had recurrent pneumonia attacks. The clinical diagnosis of SPENCD was confirmed by sequencing of the ACP5 gene, and a homozygous c.155A>C (p.K52T) variation was found, which was reported before as pathogenic. In conclusion, in early onset chronic autoimmune cytopenias an immune dysregulation may often have a role in the etiology. Associating findings and immunologic functions should be carefully evaluated in such patients in the light of the literature. The present case shows the importance of multisystemic evaluation for the detection of SPENCD that has a monogenic etiology.