This review article presents a research and technological investigation on supercapacitors and describes the recent advances of titanium-based materials in these areas. The introduction covers the properties of titanium materials, electrochemical performances of total stored charges, electric double layer capacitance (EDLC), and pseudocapacitance. The following two sections focus on the synthesis and capacitance results of titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) and titanium nitride (TiN), respectively. In the last section of this review, the role of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is demonstrated in the supercapacitors of TiO2-based, carbon/TiO2-based, metal/TiO2-based, and conducting polymer/TiO2 nanocomposites. Many factors affect the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor devices, such as doping process, conductivity, interaction between components of nanocomposite, electrolyte type, and structure type, etc. In the end, future perspectives and challenges are summarized and considered for future TiO2-based nanocomposite supercapacitors. A total of 182 references are cited to understand the effects of TiO2-based materials on supercapacitor device performances.