The effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are mediated by binding to a specific intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR), which has been identified in a variety of tissues. Certain polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been associated with various neoplasms. For this purpose, we studied whether VDR TaqI or FokI genotype are associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in 52 controls and 26 patients with colorectal cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and agarose gel electrophoresis tecniques were used to detect these polymorphisms. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum levels by ELISA. The frequencies of the FF, Ff and ff genotypes were 73.1%, 11.5%, 15.4% in colorectal cancer patients and 38.5%, 59.6%, 1.9% in healthy controls, respectively. We observed the T allele in 50% and 58.7%, and the t allele in 50% and 41.3% of colorectal cancer patients and the control group, respectively. In patients with colorectal cancer who have TT genotype, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was lower than those with Tt/tt genotype (p:0.016). The frequency of subjects with TTFf or TtFf genotype in colorectal cancer patients was very low compared with all other genotypes (OR = 0. 112; 95%CI 0.030-0.419). These data suggest that VDR TtFf or TTFf genotypes may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.