Source Apportionment of Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds using Positive Matrix Factorization

PEKEY H., PEKEY B., ARSLANBAŞ D., Bozkurt Z. B., Dogan G., Tuncel G.

WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, vol.224, no.1, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 224 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11270-012-1403-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this study was to identify potential sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO2, SO2, and O-3 in an urban and industrial area of Turkey between May 2006 and January 2007. Personal exposures were determined once per person in 28 adults over a 24-h period. Energy dispersive Xray fluorescence and a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry were used to measure 15 elements in PM2.5, including Al, As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn. The VOCs benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cyclohexane, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, hexane, heptane, nonane, octane, decane, undecane, and dodecane were measured by thermal desorption and gas chromatography/flame ionization. Application of positive matrix factorization to the data obtained suggests that motor vehicles, indoor sources, and industry represent the main emission sources of the investigated chemical species. Six major sources smoking (9 %), industry (15 %), gasoline exhaust (21 %), indoor sources (17 %), diesel exhaust (19 %), and crustal (19 %) were identified.