Primary hypothalamic lymphoma with clinical findings mimicking pituitary apoplexy: a case report


SÖZEN M., YAPRAK BAYRAK B., SELEK A., CANTÜRK Z., Cetinarslan B., GEZER E.

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL CASE REPORTS, vol.15, no.1, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s13256-021-02866-7
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL CASE REPORTS
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Hypothalamic lymphoma, Hypopituitarism, Diabetes insipidus, Empty sella, PRIMARY-CNS-LYMPHOMA, NERVOUS-SYSTEM LYMPHOMA, DIAGNOSIS, SARCOIDOSIS
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Background Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare but well-known extra-nodal lymphoma, which usually presents with non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. PCNSL is generally located around the ventricle and is often detected as multiple lesions. It is rarely seen in the area of the hypothalamus. Case presentation We report the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian woman with progressive short-term memory deterioration, headache, mental confusion, diabetes insipidus (DI) and hypopituitarism. Early findings were suggestive of a pituitary apoplexy. The results of tests performed during the initial admission at the tertiary health center revealed hypernatremia, hypopituitarism and DI. Intravenous hydrocortisone treatment was initiated for the secondary adrenal insufficiency, and 75 mcg/day of levothyroxine was started for the secondary hypothyroidism on the fourth day following hydrocortisone treatment. A daily dose of 120 mg desmopressin melt tablet was started twice a day for polyuria/polydipsia after the patient's volume status was balanced. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a mass lesion in the hypothalamic area, which was surrounded by marked edema. Anti-edema treatment was initially started considering the suggestion by our neurosurgery team. The patient's clinical and laboratory findings improved after the initiation of the anti-edema therapy. Afterwards, a biopsy was performed, which diagnosed a malignant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Subsequently, intravenous high-dose methotrexate-based therapy was started; however, after the second cycle of chemotherapy, the patient died due to sepsis. Conclusion In this report, we present a case of hypopituitarism that developed due to the mass effect of hypothalamic lymphoma with clinical findings of pituitary apoplexy. Intracranial masses may cause obvious endocrinological findings related to hypopituitarism, while vague findings may also be observed due to partial failure. Therefore, it is important to perform a comprehensive endocrinological examination at the time of diagnosis in patients with intracranial masses.