Evaluation of the impact of water reclamation on blue and grey water footprint in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

Çankaya S.

The Science of the total environment, vol.903, pp.166196, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 903
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.166196
  • Journal Name: The Science of the total environment
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.166196
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


Sustainable water management is one of the research areas that is gaining importance worldwide today. In this work, water footprint assessment was conducted in a wastewater treatment plant before (called as WWTP-C for the year of 2018) and after (called as WWTP-WR for the year of 2021) adding the water reclamation unit, using the method proposed by Water Footprint Network (WFN). Additionally, the impact of water reclamation on blue water footprint (WFblue) and grey water footprint (WFgrey) was investigated from an environmental sustainability point of view. Water footprint of WWTP-C and WWTP-WR was evaluated as 2.2 m3 and 2.3 m3; respectively. While energy consumption and sludge treatment were determined as the major components for WFblue, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were the most limiting pollutants for WFgrey. Environmental benefit of water reclamation to reducing the WFgrey was determined as 44 % for the year of 2021. The sensitivity analysis results showed that high variability in the values of maximum allowable concentration of pollutants by national regulations has significantly affect the sustainability of WFgrey.