Purpose: We aimed to compare the body mass index and vitamin and mineral status of children with and without amblyopia. Methods: Amblyopic children aged between 5 and 18 years (n=46) and age-matched control children (n=32) were evaluated in terms of anthropometric parameters, including height, weight, body mass index and demographic features. Serum vitamin B-12 and folate were measured using an Advia Centaur XP (Siemens, Ireland) biochemistry analyzer. We evaluated the inorganic mineral elements from hair samples with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using a Thermo XSeries 2 analyzer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of height, weight, and body mass index or serum B-12 and folate concentrations (p>0.05). Children with severe amblyopia had lower vitamin B-12 and folate and higher body mass index. The levels of phosphorus (p=0.012), selenium (p=0.002), molybdenum (p<0.001), iodine (p=0.002), chromium (p=0.022), boron (p<0.001), and beryllium (p=0.005) were all significantly lower in the amblyopia group compared to the control group. All of these minerals, except phosphorus, were also significantly lower in those with severe amblyopia compared to those with milder amblyopia and controls (p<0.05). Conclusion: Amblyopic children are significantly deficient in some inorganic elements. Inorganic elements, vitamin B-12 and folate may play an important role in the visual development of amblyopic children.