IEEE ACCESS, vol.11, pp.42862-42880, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
For years, the pendulum system has been the most popular experimental setup for education and research in robotics and control theory. This paper examines the different kinematic and dynamic structures of pendulum systems, which are frequently used in literature, considering their usage in various engineering fields. Each pendulum system resembles a real physical system and provides a deeper understanding of the behavior of the system. Although each pendulum has its own advantages and disadvantages according to its structure and dynamics, these contain differences depending on the application area and usage method. This paper aims to review and simplify the understanding of the various pendulum systems used in research and applications, presenting a summary of the general properties of pendulum systems to the researcher.