Mediastinum is one of the place in which ectopic parathyroid adenomas can be located. Here, an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, which was excised via parasternal videomediastinoscopy was presented. The patient with chronic renal insufficiency had increased calcium levels persistence after the surgery for cervical parathyroid adenoma. Radio logic and scintigraphic examinations revealed a focal intense nodule in anterior mediastinum. Parasternal videomediastinoscopy was performed via parasternal incision through the second intercostal space. Ex-vivo specimen radioactivity measurements and frozen examination confirmed parathyroid adenoma. Calcium levels were decreased dramatically after the operation. Parasternal videomediastinoscopy could be an alternative surgical way in anterior mediastinal small masses such as ectopic parathyroid adenoma. It is the first case in which parasternal videomediastinoscopy was used for excision of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.