Analysis of cascade vapor compression refrigeration system using nanorefrigerants: Energy, exergy, and environmental (3E)


Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol.57, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.csite.2024.104373
  • Journal Name: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Cascade refrigeration system, Energy, Environmental, Exergy, Nanoparticles
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


Nanorefrigerants are considered the most efficient heat transfer fluids for improving heat transfer properties in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. For the first time in this study, energy, exergy, and environmental evaluation (3E) analyses were performed by the addition of different nanoparticles to a low GWP refrigerant pair such as R290/R1233ZDE in a cascade refrigeration system. CNT, CuO, and, TiO2 nanoparticles were added to the refrigerant. The effect of nanoparticles on the cascade refrigeration system was analyzed using a model based on density changes. A detailed thermodynamic analysis was performed of the cascade refrigeration system at different evaporator temperatures and mass ratios. The power consumption of the compressor decreases as the evaporator temperature increases for all types of nanoparticles, resulting in an increase in COP values. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles had the highest performance. It has been observed that the energy and exergy efficiency increase as compressor work decreases with increasing mass ratios in all nanorefrigerants. In addition, the results indicated that all nanorefrigerants emit lower monthly CO2 emissions compared to the pure refrigerants. The nanorefrigerants play a crucial role in reducing energy consumption and promoting environmental protection compared to traditional refrigerants.