The Imperativeness of Environmental Quality in China Amidst Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness

SOYLU Ö. B., Adebayo T. S., Kirikkaleli D.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.13, no.9, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su13095054
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: CO2 emissions, renewable energy consumption, economic growth, wavelet coherence, partial wavelet coherence, multiple wavelet coherence, China, CO2 EMISSIONS EVIDENCE, ECONOMIC-GROWTH, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, UNIT-ROOT, TIME-SERIES, WAVELET COHERENCE, CARBON EMISSIONS, HYPOTHESIS, IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


It is widely accepted that CO2 emissions are the primary cause of climate change and environmental destruction. China, the world's biggest carbon emitter, is the subject of this research. Utilizing the wavelet tools (wavelet correlation, wavelet coherence, multiple wavelet coherence, and partial wavelet coherence), the present study intends to capture the time-frequency dependence between CO2 emissions and renewable energy, economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage in China between 1965 and 2019. The advantage of the wavelet tools is that they can differentiate between short, medium, and long-run dynamics over the period of study. Furthermore, the study utilized the gradual shift causality test to capture the causal interconnection between CO2 emissions and the regressors. The findings from Bayer and Hanck showed a long-run relationship among the variables of interest. Furthermore, the findings from the wavelet coherence test revealed a positive relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth and energy usage at all frequencies. Although there is a weak negative relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions in the short run, there is no significant co-movement between CO2 emissions and trade openness. The outcomes of the partial and multiple wavelet coherence also give credence to the outcomes of the wavelet coherence test. Lastly, the gradual shift causality test revealed a one-way causality from energy usage and economic growth to CO2 emissions. Based on the findings, suitable policy suggestions were proposed.