Stress distribution comparisons of foot bones in patient with tibia vara: a finite element study

Ozkan A. , Atmaca H., MUTLU İ. , ÇELİK T. , Ugur L., KİŞİOĞLU Y.

ACTA OF BIOENGINEERING AND BIOMECHANICS, vol.15, no.4, pp.67-72, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.5277/abb130409
  • Page Numbers: pp.67-72


Blount's disease, or tibia vara, is the most common cause of pathologic genu varum in children and adolescents. Changes in the loading of knee structures such as tibial articular cartilage, menisci and subcondral bone are well documented in case of genu varum. But the mechanical effects of this condition on foot bones are still questionable. In this study, the authors hypothesized that stress distributions on foot bones might increase in patients with tibia vara when compared with patients who had normal lower extremity mechanical axis. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses of human lower limb were used to investigate and compare the loading on foot bones in normal population and patient with tibia vara. The segmentation software, MIMICS was used to generate the 3D images of the bony structures of normal and varus malalignment lower extremity. Except the spaces between the adjacent surface of the phalanges fused, metatarsals, cuneiforms, cuboid, navicular, talus and calcaneus bones were independently developed to form foot and ankle complex. Also femur, tibia and fibula were modeled utilizing mechanical axis. ANSYS version 14 was used for mechanical tests and maximum equivalent stresses (MES) were examined. As a result of the loading conditions, in varus model MES on talus, calcaneus and cuboid were found higher than in normal model. And stress distributions changed through laterally on middle and fore foot in varus deformity model.