Energy consumption, thermal comfort, and indoor air quality in mosques: Impact of Covid-19 measures

Yuksel A., ARICI M. , Krajcik M., CİVAN M. , KARABAY H.

JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol.354, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 354
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131726
  • Keywords: Covid-19, Pandemic, Mosque, Energy consumption, Indoor air quality, Thermal comfort, PARTICULATE MATTER


Restrictions have been imposed on the number of people, the duration of their stay and air conditioning operation in temples to limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This work studied how restrictions affected energy consumption, thermal comfort, and indoor air quality (IAQ) in mosques. Energy consumption data on lighting, heating and cooling before and during the pandemic were analyzed in six mosques of various sizes located in Yalova city, Turkey. The annual energy consumption for lighting was reduced during the pandemic in all mosques due to less usage, while the annual heating and cooling costs were raised in one mosque despite their restricted use. Besides, experiments were conducted to assess the effect of pandemic measures on thermal comfort and IAQ by measuring indoor temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, CO2 and PM concentrations in a typical mosque. Keeping the windows open and limiting occupancy improved the IAQ. This was evidenced by the lower average CO2 concentration during the pandemic (428 +/- 40 ppm) than before the pandemic (661 +/- 201 ppm). An acceptable thermal environment was achieved under pandemic measures at night during the summer period. Creating excellent conditions can be difficult without air conditioning even with open windows and prayers performed at night.