Optimizing Process Parameters on the Remediation Efforts for the Mass Removal of DNAPL Entrapped in a Porous Media

Mohammed M., ÖZBAY İ. , Akyol G., AKYOL N. H. , ŞAHİN Y. , ÖZBAY B. , ...More

WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION, vol.230, no.7, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 230 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11270-019-4191-0


In the present study, the Taguchi design (TD) and the Box-Behnken design (BBD) were used to determine the effect of surfactant concentration, flushing velocity, and dense non-aqueous-phase liquid-trichloroethylene (DNAPL TCE) mass on the time of remediation for the removal of DNAPL zones, which is one of the main persistent sources of groundwater pollution. In the Taguchi approach, the performance of the response variable is measured based on the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio whereas estimation of the full quadratic model of the parameters is allowed in the Box-Behnken design. The mean experimental values ranged between 3.97-8.31 and 4.01-9.70 for BBD and TD, respectively. Surfactant concentration was identified as the most significant parameter contributing to remediation efficiency in both design techniques. Minimum remediation effort was determined as 5.99 at obtained optimal conditions of surfactant concentration (2.5%), flushing rate (6 cm/h), and DNAPL TCE mass (365 mg) using BBD. In the case of TD, the optimal conditions were determined at a surfactant concentration of 10%, 2 cm/h flushing rate, and 365 mg DNAPL TCE mass. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a good relationship between the predicted and experimental values with 1.96% and 0.31% of the total variation that was not explained by the model using TD and BBD, respectively. Consequently, from this comparative study, it was concluded that BBD was a more suitable alternative to TD for the evaluation of remediation of DNAPL-contaminated sites.