Determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB pollution levels, source appointment and risk assessment of surface sediments in dam lakes in Istanbul, Turkiye


Canli O., Guzel B., KARADEMİR A.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-22244-0
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Keywords: Dam, DL-PCBs, PCDD/Fs, Istanbul, Surface sediment, Risk assessment, DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS, RIVER, MANAGEMENT, ESTUARY, SAMPLES, METALS, MATTER, FURANS

Abstract

The current situation of the water resources of Istanbul, which is one of the important metropolises of Europe, should be known and constantly monitored by the reasons of the rapid increase in the city population, the acceleration of production-related industrial activities, the expansion of the city with construction activities, and the decrease in precipitation. The purpose of this study was to reveal the situations of surface sediments collected from Istanbul water reservoirs in terms of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, to identify possible sources, and to conduct their ecological risk assessment. Total PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs concentrations varied between 28.13 and 457.4 pg/g (average 136.8 pg/g) and 12.19-340.1 pg/g (average 72.09 pg/g). The corresponding TEQ values of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were between 0.53 and 5.37 pg TEQ/g (average 2.23 pg TEQ/g) and 0.02-0.44 pg TEQ/g (average 0.12 pg TEQ/g), respectively. Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is the dominant congener by constituting about 75% of the total PCDD/Fs on average, while congener distributions of DL-PCBs showed the dominance of PCB-118 and PCB-105. The sediments taken from Kazandere dam have the lowest pollution levels for both PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The highest PCDD/F and DL-PCB amounts were measured in sediments of Alibey and Elmali dams (closest to highly populated settlements of Istanbul), which are most affected by the air pollution caused by the traffic, commercial/industrial combustion (like waste incineration facility) and combustion for residential heating. Almost all the sediments have total dioxin-like toxicity levels higher than the safe threshold level (with two exceptions) of 0.85 pg TEQ/g dw, proposed for ecological risk. Health risk assessment shows that levels of dioxin-like compounds would result in a total intake of 0.33 pg TEQ/kg bw/day even in the worst-case scenario, not exceeding the tolerable daily intake value of 1 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Among exposure pathways, consumption of fish constitutes almost all the total intake, while contributions of other pathways are minimal.