The preference of the most appropriate radical-based regeneration process for spent activated carbon by the PROMETHEE approach

GENÇ N. , DURNA E. , Kacira E.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-021-15833-y
  • Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes, PROMETHEE approach, Regeneration, Response surface methodology, Spent activated carbon, RESPONSE-SURFACE METHODOLOGY, PERSULFATE OXIDATION, CHEMICAL REGENERATION, ADSORPTION, OPTIMIZATION, REMOVAL, WASTE, MANAGEMENT, MICROWAVE, KINETICS


In this study, regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) with reactive dye by hydroxyl and sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (microwave (MW) +persulfate (PS)), (Fe(II)+ PS), and (O-3 + H2O2) were evaluated. The adsorption of the dye to the GAC surface was characterized by chemisorption and Langmuir isotherm. Regeneration processes have been optimized by the response surface methodology to determine the operating conditions that will provide the highest adsorptive capacity. The optimum conditions of (MW + PS), (Fe (II) + PS), and (O-3 + H2O2) processes were process PS anion of 45.52 g/L, pH of 11.4, MW power of 126 W, and duration of 14.56 min; Fe (II) of 3.58 g/L, PS anion of 73.5 g/L, duration of 59.8 min, and pH of 10.9; and H2O2 of 2.8 mole/L, flow rate of 8.14 mg ozone/L, duration of 32.8 min, and pH of 5.3, respectively. For (MW + PS), (Fe (II) + PS), and (O-3 + H2O2) processes, the adsorptive capacity under optimum conditions was found as 4.36, 8.89, and 8.12 mg dye/g GAC, respectively. For (Fe (II) + PS) and (O-3 + H2O2) processes, these values are approximately equal to the adsorptive capacity of raw GAC (8.01 mg dye/g GAC). The predicted values of the adsorption capacities by the obtained models were in good agreement with the actual experimental results. Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation approach was used in the preference of the appropriate regeneration process. The adsorptive capacity of regenerated GAC, operating cost of the regeneration process, change in the adsorptive capacity during the regeneration cycle, and carbon mass loss criteria were taken into account. The order of preference of regeneration processes was determined as (Fe (II) + PS)> (MW + PS)> (O-3 + H2O2) considering all criteria.