Volatile organic compounds in suburban Ankara atmosphere, Turkey: Sources and variability

Yurdakul S., Civan M., Tuncel G.

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, vol.120, pp.298-311, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 120
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.09.015
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.298-311
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, concentrations of approximately 30 VOCs were measured, between January and June 2008 at a university campus in Ankara. Concentrations of measured VOCs are lower than corresponding concentrations reported for other cities in literature. Average concentrations of the measured VOCs ranged from 0.04 to 7.89 mu g m(-3). Benzene (2.18 mu g m(-3)), toluene (7.89 mu g m(-3)), ethylbenzene (0.85 mu g m(-3)) and xylenes (2.62 mu g m(-3)) (BTEX) were found as a major organics in suburban Ankara atmosphere. The measured VOCs also show well defined diurnal and weekday weekend cycles. Toluene-to-benzene ratio (TT/B) suggested that non-traffic sources can be important during summer months. The m,p-xylene-to-ethylbenzene ratio (X/E) pointed to transport of organic compounds from high-emission districts of the city. Positive matrix factorization applied to data revealed four sources, including gasoline exhaust, solvent evaporation, diesel emissions and a local laboratory source, contributing to VOC concentrations. Strengths of these sources, particularly solvent source, on total VOC concentrations showed seasonal differences. Source contributions on light and heavy VOCs were also different. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.