Mechanical-Properties-Based Ballistic Performance Prediction of Candidate Armor Steels

BİLİR O. G., Başer T., Barutçuoğlu B., Bayram A., Uzunboy M., ERİŞİR E.

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol.32, no.17, pp.7640-7650, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 17
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11665-023-08165-0
  • Journal Name: Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.7640-7650
  • Keywords: armor steel, ballistic performance, impact energy, mechanical properties
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


This study presents a new methodology for predicting the ballistic performance of armor steels based on their mechanical properties. Plates were developed as candidate armor steels, and the mechanical properties (hardness, strength, impact toughness, and total elongation) were determined for each. A pass/fail criterion was established, and the values of the mechanical features were normalized by rescaling and range normalization. Ballistic tests were performed by 7.62 × 51 mm (NATO Ball) and 5.56 × 45 mm (SS109) projectiles to validate the proposed methodology against the EN1522 standard (FB-6 Level) protection. The results showed a good agreement between the proposed methodology and ballistic results, with 5.56 × 45 mm (SS109) being more effective than 7.62 × 51 mm (NATO Ball) for penetrating the target when the plate had low hardness and tensile strength despite having high impact toughness. This was attributed to the ammunition's partial steel core and behavior as a “semi-armor piercing” round.