Synthesis of Ethyl Levulinate as a Fuel Bioadditive by a Novel Catalytically Active Pervaporation Membrane

Unlu D., Hilmioglu N.

ENERGY & FUELS, vol.30, no.4, pp.2997-3003, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02911
  • Journal Name: ENERGY & FUELS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2997-3003
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


The pervaporation catalytic membrane reactor (PVCMR) is an innovative process where the reactor is combined with a separation unit. The PVCMR consumes less energy than conventional processes and is an environmentally friendly process. The catalytic composite membrane is used in which catalysts are embedded onto the permselective membrane. The production process of ethyl levulinate is a progressive, green, energy-efficient technology by the PVCMR. In present paper, a catalytically active membrane is prepared and used in the synthesis of ethyl levulinate. Ethyl levulinate is one of the fuel bioadditives. A heterogeneous catalyst (silicotungstic acid) was embedded in the membrane. A hydrophilic hydroxyethyl cellulose membrane was prepared. Reaction parameters, such as the temperature, catalyst concentration in the membrane, and initial molar ratio of reactants, were investigated on the conversion of levulinic acid. The reaction performance of the PVCMR and batch reactor was compared, and it was found that the PVCMR showed higher performance with regard to the batch reactor.