The main aim of this study consists of proposing a simple but effective and robust approach for PID type fuzzy controller (Fuzzy-PID) in order to improve the dynamics and stability of a magnetic ball levitation system. The design parameters of the proposed controller are optimally determined based on Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm. During the optimization, a time domain objective function is used for minimizing the values of common step response characteristics for the optimal selection of the controller parameters. Robustness tests are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller through extensive simulations under load disturbance, parametric variation and changes in references. Moreover, to show the advantage and compare the performance of the proposed controller, the PID and Fractional Order PID (FOPID) controllers tuned with CS are designed. The simulation results and comparisons with the CS based PID and FOPID controllers demonstrate that the CS based Fuzzy-PID controller has superior performance depending on small overshoot, short settling time, fast rise time and minimum steady state error. Compared with the PID and FOPID controller tuned with CS, the simulation results show that the proposed Fuzzy-PID controller tuned with CS outperforms in terms of the accuracy, robustness and the least control effort.