Clinical records of 104 surviving very low birth weight (VLBW) preterms whose gestational ages were below 35 weeks were retrospectively reviewed in order to evaluate the incidence and the risk factors related to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a neonatal intensive care setting in a developing country. The mean birth weight and the gestational age of 104 VLBW survivors were 1233 +/- 192 g and 30.4 +/- 2 weeks respectively. Twelve infants (11.5 %) had threshold ROP and were applied cryotherapy. Lower birth weight (p<0.05), having a birth weight less than 1000 g (p=0.01), lower gestational age (p<0.05), maternal chorioamnionitis (p<0.01), suffering from chronic lung disease (CLD) (P<0.01) and experiencing mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days (p<0.05) have been found to be significant risk factors for threshold ROP. The disease was associated with higher NTISS (Neonatal Therapeutic Intensity Scoring System) (p<0.01) and CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) (p<0.05) scores. The highest risk was observed in infants with maternal chorioamnionitis, CLD and NTISS scores greater than 40.