in: The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, John I. Liontas, Editor, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK , Oxford, pp.1-5, 2018
This entry reviews research methods for studying listening, which is one of the most complex skills to operationalize and investigate because it entails multi‐layered physiological, cognitive, affective, and contextual factors. The review touches upon different classifications of research techniques, methods, approaches, and orientations for studying listening in the field of English language teaching with the aim of providing insights about the complex nature of listening. Following Vandergrift (2015), we have classified research on L2 listening into two groups, namely product‐oriented listening research and process‐oriented listening research. These two lines of orientation utilize different methods, different tools for data collection and assessment, and offer different insights about the complex listening process. We discussed the pedagogical implications of these two research orientations as well.