Objective: With the changing clinical presentation and histopathological pattern, carcinoids are now considered as a distinct and well-defined group in the neuroendocrine tumour scale. Surgery, especially parenchyma-sparing operations, are the treatment of choice for carcinoids. Methods: Over a 25-year period, 83 patients with typical carcinoid tumour underwent thoracotomy on in our institution. The records of the patients were reviewed and the results were evaluated. Results: The diagnosis was made with radiological methods and bronchoscopy. Cough and recurrent pneumonia were the most common symptoms. A variety of surgical procedures were performed. Thirty of the 83 patients underwent tissue-saving operations. Twenty patients underwent bronchotomy excision, eight were managed with sleeve or partial sleeve resective procedures, and two underwent segmentectomy. Conclusions: Conservative surgery is the treatment of choice of carcinoids, which were histologically typical and anatomically endobronchial. Especially for polypoid type carcinoids and for selected cases with sessile type, bronchotomy with simple excision and sleeve resections is a simple and effective method. As these types of operations produce a better functional result, they should be encouraged in these patients. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.