MEDITERRANEAN ARCHAEOLOGY & ARCHAEOMETRY, vol.22, no.1, pp.1-14, 2022 (AHCI)
Twenty-eight copper-based artefacts, including unworked lumps, ornaments, and tools, recovered from Pre Pottery Neolithic B layers of Gre Filla, located in the southeast of Anatolia, were analysed by hand-held, portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to understand the feasibility of instrument in identifying the type of copper minerals available at the settlement. The bulk analysis of eight lumps was further performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The results revealed important differences between the two approaches. According to the elemental composition obtained by bulk analysis, the lumps appeared to be malachite. The presence of lumps suggests that manufacturing of the objects was achieved at the site. The chisel axes, one with a bone handle, present the earliest examples of metal axes, although they reflect lithic manufacturing technology in contrast to postdated axes. A comparison with the contemporary settlement at cayonu, Asikli, and Tel Halula reflects the model of copper metallurgy in the region at the beginning of pyrotechnology.