© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.AA1050 Al alloy samples were shot-peened using stainless-steel shots at shot peening (SP) pressures of 0.1 and 0.5 MPa and surface cover rates of 100% and 1000% using a custom-designed SP system. The hardness of shot-peened samples was around twice that of unpeened samples. Hardness increased with peening pressure, whereas the higher cover rate did not lead to hardness improvement. Micro-crack formation and embedment of shots occurred by SP, while average surface roughness increased up to 9 µm at the higher peening pressure and cover rate, indicating surface deterioration. The areal coverage of the embedded shots ranged from 1% to 5% depending on the peening parameters, and the number and the mean size of the embedded shots increased at the higher SP pressure and cover rate. As evidenced and discussed through the surface and cross-sectional SEM images, the main deformation mechanisms during SP were schematically described as crater formation, folding, micro-crack formation, and material removal. Overall, shot-peened samples demonstrated improved mechanical properties, whereas sample surface integrity only deteriorated notably during SP at the higher pressure, suggesting that selecting optimal peening parameters is key to the safe use of SP. The implemented methodology can be used to modify similar soft alloys within confined compromises in surface features.