A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and the rare finding of concomitant meningioma and optic pathway glioma within the same optic nerve is presented. A 4-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with right-sided proptosis. He also had numerous cafe-au-lait macules and axillary freckling on physical exam. According to National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria, he met the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a mass originating from the right optic nerve sheath with normal appearance of the optic nerve was observed, which was consistent with optic nerve sheath meningioma. Another mass lesion was observed in the prechiasmatic region of the same optic nerve, which was consistent with optic nerve glioma. Two different types of optic pathway tumors in the same optic nerve is an extraordinary case. It is important to recognize imaging findings of these tumors and make correct diagnosis.