Risk assessment of PBDEs and PAHs in house dust in Kocaeli, Turkey: levels and sources


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Civan M. , Kara U. M.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, cilt.23, ss.23369-23384, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)

  • Cilt numarası: 23
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11356-016-7512-5
  • Dergi Adı: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.23369-23384

Özet

Indoor dust samples were collected from 40 homes in Kocaeli, Turkey and were analyzed simultaneously for 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 16 poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) isomers. The total concentrations of PBDEs (I 14PBDEs) pound ranged from 29.32 to 4790 ng g(-1), with a median of 316.1 ng g(-1), while the total indoor dust concentrations of 16 PAHs (I (16)PAHs) pound extending over three to four orders of magnitude ranged from 85.91 to 40,359 ng g(-1) with a median value of 2489 ng g(-1). Although deca-PBDE products (BDE-209) were the principal source of PBDEs contamination in the homes (median, 138.3 ng g(-1)), the correlation in the homes was indicative of similar sources for both the commercial penta and deca-PBDE formulas. The PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs measured in the indoor samples could be coal/biomass combustion, smoking, and cooking emissions. For children and adults, the contributions to a(14)PBDEs exposure were approximately 93 and 25 % for the ingestion of indoor dust, and 7 and 75 % for dermal contact. Exposure to a(16)PAHs through dermal contact was the dominant route for both children (90.6 %) and adults (99.7 %). For both groups, exposure by way of inhalation of indoor dust contaminated with PBDEs and PAHs was negligible. The hazard index (HI) values for BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153, and BDE-209 were lower than the safe limit of 1, and this result suggested that none of the population groups would be likely to experience potential health risk due to exposure to PBDEs from indoor dust in the study area. Considering only ingestion + dermal contact, the carcinogenic risk levels of both B2 PAHs and BDE-209 for adults were 6.2 x 10(-5) in the US EPA safe limit range while those for children were 5.6 x 10(-4) and slightly higher than the US EPA safe limit range (1 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-4)). Certain precautions should be considered for children.