Aroclor 1254 was the second most produced commercial PCB mixture and is found in soils, sediments and sewage throughout the globe. This commercial PCB mixture is considered particularly toxic because of the relatively high concentrations of congeners with dioxin-like properties. The potential for risk reduction by microbial reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 (A1254) was investigated in sediment microcosms from Grasse River (GR), Massena, NY. The specificity of A1254 dechlorination was doubly- and singly flanked chlorines in meta positions and to a less extent doubly-flanked para chlorines of 2345-substituted chlorobiphenyl rings. The average dechlorination rate of A1254 was 0.0153 Cl- /biphenyl/day, and dechlorination rates of single congeners ranged between 0.001 and 0.0074 Cl- /biphenyl/day. Potential risk associated with A1254 based on the toxic equivalency factors of the dioxin-like congeners was reduced by 83%. Additional potential risk associated with bioaccumulation in fish was reduced by 35% based on biota-sediment accumulation factor estimates for all detected congeners. Finally, the dechlorination end products were tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls with unflanked chlorines, all of which are susceptible to further degradation by aerobic microorganisms. The combined results indicate that microbial reductive dechlorination has the potential for reducing risk associated with toxicity and bioaccumulation in fish in sites contaminated with A1254. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.