Alkaptonuria(AKU) is a rare metabolic disorder of phenylalanine catabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. AKU is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGO) gene. The deFIciency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity causes homogentisic aciduria, ochronosis and arthritis. We present the first molecular study of the HGO gene in Turkish AKU patients. Seven unrelated AKU families from different regions in Turkey were analysed. Patients in three families were homozygous for the R58fs mutation; another three families were homozygous for the R225H mutation; and one family was homozygous for the G270R mutation. Analysis of nine intragenic HGO polymorphisms showed that the R58fs, R225H and G270R Turkish AKU mutations are associated with specific HGO haplotypes. The comparison with previously reported haplotypes associated with these mutations from other populations revealed that the R225H is a recurrentmutation in Turkey, whereas G270R most likely has a Slovak origin. Most interestingly, these analyses showed that the Turkish R58fs mutation shares an HGO haplotype with the R58fs mutation found in Finland, Slovakia and India, suggesting that R58fs is an old AKU mutation that probably originated in central Asia and spread throughout Europe and Anatolia during human migrations.