Among several newly identified oncogenes, dek and af4 are attractive targets for researchers interested with leukemia. In this study quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR technique was used to define alterations in expression of dek and af4 genes associated with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) t (15; 17). RNA samples obtained from bone marrow aspirates of fourteen APL patients, cDNA portions were labelled with Syber Green 1 dye and LightCycler analysis have been performed. Expression changes in patients were found not significant in comparison to healthy donors for af4 (P = 0.192) and dek (P = 0.089.5). We suggest that af4 gene may have a role in leukomogenesis restricted to lymphoblastic lineage; also further studies must carry on with a larger series of patients in order to understand the relationship between the dek gene and APL. Our study was the first attempt for analysing dek and af4 genes in APL t (15; 17) patients by quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR. This rapid and sensitive method could be used to screen these genes in different types of leukaemia.