In the present study, our aim is to investigate the effects of the treatment modality, depression, malnutrition and inflammation on quality of life (QoL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-six patients with CKD on conservative management, 68 patients on haemodialysis (HD), 47 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and 66 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. QoL was measured by means of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and subscale scores were calculated. All patients were evaluated for the presence of depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders - Clinician Version. The severity of depression was evaluated by means of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, albumin, haemoglobin and haematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. All the SF-36 subscale scores were lower in the patient groups compared with control group. The SF-36 scores were higher and BDI scores were lower in the CAPD group than CKD and HD groups. In patients with depression, all SF-36 subscale scores were lower than that of the patients without depression. There was a significant negative correlation between all the SF-36 subscale scores and the BDI scores. There was a significant positive correlation between the SF-36 physical and total summary scores and the Hct value and serum albumin levels, but an inverse correlation between the SF-36 physical, mental and total summary scores and the serum CRP level in the HD patients. The authors suggest that the treatment modality, depression, malnutrition and inflammation have an important role on QoL in CKD.