This study determines the optimum insulation layer thickness to be applied to external building walls considering the heating degree-day (HDD) method, then energy saving costs, payback periods, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are calculated accordingly. The optimisation analysis is performed for four different thermal insulation materials (glass wool, rock wool, extruded polystyrene, and expanded polystyrene). Natural gas is chosen as fuel for heating purposes, and horizontal perforated brick is preferred in the wall. One of the original features in this study is environmental analysis to determine the CO2 emission for the insulated wall in Turkey provinces. Another feature is that it has the most up-to-date data about HDD values and fuel and insulation material costs. The worst and best insulation materials are obtained as rock wool and glass wool, respectively. The optimum insulation layer thickness for the best case is varied between 0.07 m and 0.23 m, depending on the HDD values of provinces. The annual total energy saving cost is in the range of 4.4-53.5 $/(m(2) year), and the payback period is 0.11-0.38 years. Besides, the reduction in annual CO2 emission is changed between 53.2% and 94% for the best case, compared to the uninsulated wall.