Hanging Wall and Footwall Effects in the Largest Reverse-Slip Earthquake of Turkey, October 23, 2011, M W 7.2 Van Earthquake

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Beyen K.

Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol.44, pp.4757-4781, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13369-018-3547-x
  • Title of Journal : Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering
  • Page Numbers: pp.4757-4781


This study provides an engineering-focused assessment of the ground motions recorded during the Mw 7.2 reverse-slip Van
earthquake. Spatial and temporal distributions of the site responses and their effects on the structural responses were discussed.
Reverse/oblique earthquake characteristics with coupled effects of source, path of propagation and local site conditions in
the fault-normal and fault-parallel directions on hanging wall and footwall blocks are particularly considered. Magnitude and
distance dependency of the recordings from 22 stations were examined using ground motion prediction equations developed
for reverse mechanism. Results show that parameters in the ground motion prediction expressions are not robust enough to
represent the source process and propagation effects. Elastic and inelastic displacement limits for the first three closest stations
are exceeded in each direction for structural periods greater than about 0.2 s. Severely damaged towns Erci¸s and Van were
examined in the lights of available recordings. Large structural displacement responses of the majority of the buildings initiated
inelastic behavior during the main shock. As a consequence of severe demands, structural collapses observed at the region due
to poor construction quality which satisfied neither nominal nor full ductility levels. Overall results indicated that effects of
directivity and hanging wall effect increased the influence of the seismic loading on structures despite low peak acceleration
values recorded at the region. For known active tectonic regions, earthquake design spectrum should be modified over a period
range of interest for rupture dynamics and near-fault ground motions in strike-normal and strike-parallel directions.