In this study acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) terpolymer was reinforced with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS)-treated short glass fibers (SGFs). The effects of SGF concentration and extrusion process conditions, such as the screw speed and barrel temperature profile, on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. Increasing the SGF concentration in the ABS matrix from 10 wt% to 30 wt% resulted in improved tensile strength, tensile modulus and flexural modulus, but drastically lowered the strain-at-break and the impact strength. The average fiber length decreased when the concentration of glass fibers increased. The increase in screw speed decreased the average fiber length, and therefore the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural modulus, and impact strength were affected negatively and the strain-at-break was affected positively. The increase in extrusion temperature decreased the fiber length degradation, and therefore the tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural modulus, and impact strength increased. At higher temperatures the ABS matrix degraded and the mechanical strength of the composites decreased. To obtain a strong interaction at the interface, polyamide-6 (PA6) at varying concentrations was introduced into the ABS/30 wt% SGF composite. The incorporation and increasing amount of PA6 in the composites broadened the fiber length distribution (FLD) owing to the low melt viscosity of PA6. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural modulus, and impact strength values increased with an increase in the PA6 content of the ABS/PA6/SGF systems due to the improved adhesion at the interface, which was confirmed by the ratio of tensile strength to flexural strength as an adhesion parameter. These results were also supported by scanning electron micrographs of the ABS/PA6/SGF composites, which exhibited an improved adhesion between the SGFs and the ABS/PA6 matrix.