Source identification of VOCs in METU Campus through factor analysis

Uzunpinar E. S., Sert E. E., Kilavuz A. S., İMAMOĞLU İ., Tuncel G.

GLOBAL NEST JOURNAL, no.1, pp.109-114, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.109-114
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, 51 ozone precursor VOCs, which are routinely measured in PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station) were measured in a suburban station located at Middle East Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department in, Ankara. Daily air samples were collected in evacuated canisters between January December, 2014. Collected samples were analyzed with GC-FID system and concentrations of 51 VOCs were determined. Mean VOC concentrations ranged between 0.048 +/- 0.061 mu g m(-3) (cis-2-penten) and 10 +/- 13 mu g m(-3) (toluene). Average benzene concentration was 1.49 +/- 1.74 mu g m(-3). Factor Analysis (FA) was applied to determine the major sources of VOCs that contribute to the measured concentrations in the university campus. FA application revealed nine factors that can be grouped under four major components, including (1) transportation: gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions, evaporative losses from gasoline vehicles, gasoline evaporation in gas stations and diesel emissions, (2) industrial emissions: industrial evaporation and industrial application, (3) solvent emissions: surface coatings and solvent use and (4) asphalt application.