Does Radiotherapy Augment Natural Killer Cell Function in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?

Aksu Uzunhan T., Karakaş Z., Kuruca D. S. , Ozansoy M. B. , Karadenizli Taşkın S. , Akdeniz N., ...More

Sağlık Bilimlerinde İleri Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol.4, no.1, pp.1-12, 2021 (National Refreed University Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 4 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/jarhs2021-842449
  • Title of Journal : Sağlık Bilimlerinde İleri Araştırmalar Dergisi
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-12


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in natural killer (NK) cell proportion, NK cell activity, and cytokine levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during and after therapy. Materials and Methods: The study group included 33 ALL patients and the control group consisted of 11 healthy children. The ALL patients were divided into three groups, those who had completed protocol M, receiving maintenance chemotherapy, and whose chemotherapy was discontinued. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated at different effector to target (E:T) cell ratios and in lytic units (LU). Expression of CD56, CD3, NKp46, CD2, CD94, NKG2D, and CD16 molecules and levels of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) were measured. Results: NK cell activity at an E:T ratio of 1:1 was higher in patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy compared to the other groups (p<0.05), but there was no difference between the groups in LU (p>0.05). The ratio of CD16+CD56+ cells was smaller in the maintenance chemotherapy group compared to controls (p<0.05). Patients who underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation showed significantly higher NK cytotoxicity at 1:1 E:T ratio compared to those who did not (p<0.05). Eighty-three percent of patients in the maintenance chemotherapy group underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. The IFN-γ levels were significantly lower in the maintenance chemotherapy and discontinued treatment groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: In children with ALL, chemotherapy reduces the NK cell population and IFN-γ levels. The increase in NK cell activity in patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy may be associated with prophylactic cranial radiotherapy. Keywords: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, children, interferon, natural killer cells