To investigate the possibilities of identifying Attic vase painters based on element compositions, ten black figure vases preserved in the Izmir Archaeological Museum were analyzed using a handheld XRF, Hitachi instrument. This technique enables in situ analysis of the museum objects and surface analysis of whole vases. Vases attributed to Gorgon Painter, Sophilos, KY Painter, Rhodos 12264 Painter, Lydos, Affecter, Antimedes, and Leagros Group were selected as the study group. Higher Zn levels in the black gloss, dark red, and white paint areas than the corresponding ceramic bodies were detected. Elevated V and Cu levels were also determined in black gloss and dark red layers. When Zn/Ti ratios in the body, dark red paint, and black gloss are plotted, vases by Sophilos and Lydos show similar compositional signatures. Therefore, we argue that the chemical composition of the paints could reveal painters' characteristics based on the hypothesis that dark red and white paints could have been prepared by painters as a special mixture of their own.