Flexible Quadrature Spatial Pulse Amplitude Modulation for VLC Systems


IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL, vol.16, no.4, pp.5392-5401, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/jsyst.2021.3125370
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.5392-5401
  • Keywords: Light emitting diodes, Modulation, MIMO communication, Visible light communication, Receivers, Indexes, Amplitude modulation, Pulse amplitude modulation, quadrature-spatial modulation (QSM), visible light communication (VLC), VISIBLE-LIGHT COMMUNICATIONS, WIRELESS SYSTEMS, SPACE MODULATION, MIMO, DESIGN
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


Quadrature-spatial modulation (QSM) offers high spectral efficiency (SE) without interchannel interference for both radio frequency and visible light communication (VLC) systems. In this article, a new QSM scheme called flexible quadrature spatial pulse amplitude modulation (FQSPAM) is proposed for VLC systems. In space modulation techniques (SMTs), the data bit stream is divided into two groups as the index bits and the signal bits. These grouped bits are mapped independently to modulation symbols and indices of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, this mapping strategy puts a constraint on the number of LEDs and the size of the signal constellation. FQSPAM jointly designs the signal and spatial components of the constellation to overcome these limitations. This approach removes the constraint on the number of LEDs and the size of the signal constellation. The constellation design problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem to identify power-efficient constellations with different $M$ values. A dimming-controlled optimization algorithm has also been proposed to take into account both illumination and communication at the same time. Analytical and numerical results show the improved bit error rate performance of the proposed FQSPAM compared to spatial pulse amplitude modulation and channel adaptive bit mapping.