Impact of gestational and parental factors and maternal intake of progesterone on the development of hypospadias: A retrospective case-control study

AKAY M. A. , Yildiz G. E.

TAIWANESE JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY, vol.60, no.5, pp.894-898, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.tjog.2021.08.001
  • Page Numbers: pp.894-898
  • Keywords: Etiology, Hypospadias, Progesterone, Risk factors, OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE, PRENATAL EXPOSURE, CRYPTORCHIDISM, BIRTH, BOYS, RISK


Objective: Impact of environmental, maternal, paternal, and fetal factors on the development of hypospadias have been questioned in association with disrupted hormonal balance. We aimed to examine the association between maternal progesterone use and the associated risk factors and hypospadias. Materials and methods: There were 429 male children as the cases with hypospadias (n = 280, Group 1) and the controls without hypospadias (n = 149, Group 2). Those working in agriculture and industry, cleaners, and hairdressers were determined as risky occupational groups concerning the exposure of estrogenic endocrine disrupters. The association of progestin usage and the other risk factors with hypospadias were the study outcomes. Results: The median gestational age was significantly lower in Group 2 (p = 0.019). Prematurity was more common in Group 1 (p = 0.043). Although the median birth weight in Group 1 was significantly lower (p < 0.001), there was no significant difference between the ratios of low birth weight babies in the groups. The risky occupations were more frequently detected in Group 2 (p = 0.001). The rate and duration of progestin usage in Group 1 were significantly higher than that in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Low birth weight and the use and duration of progestins during pregnancy were significantly associated with increased hypospadias risk. (c) 2021 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (