Atherosclerotic true aneurysms of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and profunda femoris artery (PFA) are rare and difficult to detect. The synchronous presence of SFA and PFA aneurysms is even rarer. Herein, we present a case with ipsilateral true SFA and PFA aneurysms diagnosed with rupture. A review of the international literature is made, and the diagnosis and treatment options of this rare condition are discussed. A 75-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with an aneurysm on the distal SFA and the ipsilateral PFA, as well as a hematoma around the PFA. It was difficult to determine the source of the rupture before surgery, even with proper imaging. Successful ligation of the PFA and an aneurysmectomy followed by a bypass grafting for the SFA were performed. An intraoperative examination revealed that the SFA aneurysm had ruptured. In elderly males with a history of ectasia or aneurysm on the aorta or peripheral arteries, a synchronous aneurysm on the SFA or the PFA should be suspected.