The molecular mechanism playing a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCA) is not well defined. We decided to determine the changes in gene expression in PCA tissues and to compare them to those in non-cancerous samples. Prostate tissue samples were collected by needle biopsy from 21 PCA and 10 benign prostate hyperplasic (BPH) patients. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined by microarray method. In the progression to PCA, 738 up-regulated and 515 down-regulated genes were detected in samples. Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software revealed that 466 network and 423 functions-pathways eligible genes were up-regulated, and 363 network and 342 functions-pathways eligible genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated networks were identified around IL-1 beta and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes. The NFKB gene was centered around two up- and down-regulated networks. Up-regulated canonical pathways were assigned and four of them were evaluated in detail: acute phase response, hepatic fibrosis, actin cytoskeleton, and coagulation pathways. Axonal guidance signaling was the most significant down-regulated canonical pathway. Our data provide not only networks between the genes for understanding the biologic properties of PCA but also useful pathway maps for future understanding of disease and the construction of new therapeutic targets.