A major proportion of the global HIV infections is caused by group M of HIV-1 genotype and to date approximately nine subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, j, K) and 50 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been recognized. Recombinants between different HIV-1 group M subtypes are designated as CRF. The extension 'cpx', for complex, is given if the CRF consists of contributions from three or more different subtypes but the composition of the subtype is not given. The objective of this study was to present, for the first time an HIV-1 positive married couple infected with CRF06_cpx subtype in Izrnir, Turkey. A 39-year-old male patient who admitted to hospital with the complaints of oral candidiasis and zona, was found to be anti-HIV positive. CD4(+) T lymphocyte count was 21 cells/mm(3) and plasma HIV-1 RNA level was 56.380 copies/ml. He reported unprotected heterosexual contact with multiple partners including African women during his stay in Saudi Arabia between 1996 and 2002. After his diagnosis, his 37-year-old wife was screened for HIV infection and she was also found anti-HIV positive, with CD4(+)T cell count of 122 cells/mm3. However, her results of basal plasma HIV-1 RNA could not be obtained because of an internal control error. HIV-1 strains were analysed for subtyping, recombination and drug resistance mutations with pol gene region sequencing. HIV-1 sequences were subtyped as CRF06_cpx after phylogenetic analysis using neighbore-joining method. According to the recombination analysis, HIV-1 pol gene regions consisted of group M subtype G, A, D, and B in the male patient and G K, A, F, and D in the female patient. While L101 + L33F mutation associated with protease inhibitor (PI) resistance was detected in both of the patients, K21 9N mutation associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance was detected only in the male patient. In conclusion, HIV-1 molecular epidemiology studies are important tools for tracking transmission patterns and the spread of CRF. Global monitoring of CRF subtypes is also important to supply data for HIV vaccine development studies. On the other hand, the detection of HIV-1 primary resistance mutations in antiretroviral naive patients suggested that the resistance testing should be an integral part of the management of HIV infection.