Phthalate ester levels in agricultural soils of greenhouses, their potential sources, the role of plastic cover material, and dietary exposure calculated from modeled concentrations in tomato

Yesildagli B., Göktaş R. K., Ayaz T., Olgun B., Dokumacı E. N., Özkaleli M., ...More

Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.468, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 468
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2024.133710
  • Journal Name: Journal of Hazardous Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Agricultural soils, Greenhouse, Health risk, Microplastic, Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)
  • Kocaeli University Affiliated: Yes


Soil samples collected from 50 greenhouses (GHs) cultivated with tomatoes (plastic-covered:24, glass-covered:26), 5 open-area tomato growing farmlands, and 5 non-agricultural areas were analyzed in summer and winter seasons for 13 PAEs. The total concentrations (Σ13PAEs) in the GHs ranged from 212 to 2484 ng/g, wheeas the concentrations in open-area farm soils were between 240 and 1248 ng/g. Σ13PAE in non-agricultural areas was lower (35.0 - 585 ng/g). PAE exposure through the ingestion of tomatoes cultivated in GH soils and associated risks were estimated with Monte Carlo simulations after calculating the PAE concentrations in tomatoes using a partition-limited model. DEHP was estimated to have the highest concentrations in the tomatoes grown in both types of GHs. The mean carcinogenic risk caused by DEHP for tomato grown in plastic-covered GHs, glass-covered GHs, and open-area soils were 2.4 × 10−5, 1.7 × 10−5 and 1.1 × 10−5, respectively. Based on Positive Matrix Factorization results, plastic material usage in GHs (including plastic cover material source for plastic-GHs) was found to be the highest contributing source in both types of GHs. Microplastic analysis indicated that the ropes and irrigation pipes inside the GHs are important sources of PAE pollution. Pesticide application is the second highest contributing source.