Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces various biological signaling pathways, including proliferation and differentiation and it is the natural ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is a member of tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor family. EGF and EGFR control important processes in carcinogenesis and several differences in this signaling pathway are very common in certain types of cancers. In present study, we examined EGF A61G gene polymorphism as a marker of risk and progression in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients with gastric cancer and 146 control individuals were enrolled in the current study. EGF A61G gene variation was genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: The distribution of EGF A61G genotypes were different between patients with gastric cancer and controls (p=0.039). Serum EGF levels in gastric cancer cases were significantly lower than those in controls (p=0.012). There were no correlations between the serum EGF levels according to EGF A61G genotype and allelic distributions in patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that EGF A61G gene variations and EGF serum levels might be associated with the risk of gastric cancer.