Hydrogeochemical study of the thermal and mineralized waters of the Banaz (Hamambogazi) area, western Anatolia, Turkey

Pasvanoglu S.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.65, pp.741-752, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-011-1120-y
  • Page Numbers: pp.741-752


The Hamambogazi spa in western Turkey was built around natural hot springs with discharge temperatures in the range of 30-54A degrees C; the waters have near neutral pH values of 6.50-7.10 and a TDS content between 2,694 and 2,982 mg/l. Thermal water with a temperature of 47.5-73A degrees C has been produced at 325 l/s from five wells since 1994, causing some springs to go dry. A management plan is required in the study area to maximize the benefits of this resource, for which currently proposed direct uses include heating in the district and greenhouses, as well as balneology in new spas in the area. The best use for the water from each spring or well will depend on its temperature, chemistry and location. The thermal waters are mixed Na-Mg-HCO3-SO4 fluids that contain a significant amount of CO2 gas. The chemical geothermometers applied to the Hamambogazi thermal waters yield a maximum reservoir temperature of 130A degrees C. Isotope results (O-18, H-2, H-3) indicate that the thermal waters have a meteoric origin: rainwater percolates downward along fractures and faults, is heated at depth, and then rises to the surface along fractures and faults that act as a hydrothermal conduit. The basement around the Banaz Hamambogazi resort is comprised of Paleozoic metamorphic schist and marbles exposed 8 km south and 15 km north of Banaz. Mesozoic marble, limestone and ophiolitic complex are observed a few km west and in the northern part of Banaz. These units were cut at a depth of 350-480 m in boreholes drilled in the area. Overlying lacustrine deposits are composed of fine clastic units that alternate with gypsum, tuff and tuffites of 200-350 m thickness. The marble and limestones form the thermal water aquifer, while lacustrine deposits form the impermeable cap.