The prevalence of the HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 alleles in 55 Turkish children with celiac disease and 50 control subjects was investigated by using an allele-specific DNA-based polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method. The frequency of the DQA1*0501 and DQB1*02 alleles was higher in celiac patients than in controls, The DQA1B1 (*0501; *02) haplotype was present in 46 (83.6%) patients and only in 12 (24%) controls. The remaining 9 celiac patients which were negative for DQA1B1 (*0501;*02) carried the DQA1B1 (*03;*0302) haplotype. We found an excess homozygosity of the DQB1*02 allele and the DQA1B1 (*0501;*02) haplotype in the patients. No statistically significant correlation was found between the homozygosity of this haplotype or the DQB1*02 allele and an earlier onset of the disease.