In this study, 136 febrile neutropenic episodes were overviewed retrospectively. Factors offering treatment success and cost were analyzed. Twenty percent of the episodes were microbiologically documented and 51% of the bacterial isolates were gram negatives. The most commonly used empirical therapies in febrile episodes were the combination of two drugs (58.0%), monotherapy (14.8%), and antibiotics plus fluconazole (20.6%). In lymphoproliferative tumors duration of fever and discharge from the hospital were longer. Administration of the hematopoietic growth factors shortened neither the duration of neutropenia nor fever and hospitalization. Treatment costs were higher in lymphoproliferative tumors, in bacteremia, and in episodes where glycopeptides, antifungal drugs, and hematopoietic growth factors were used. In conclusion, duration of neutropenia was a significant independent predictive factor for duration of fever. In the lymphoproliferative tumors, duration of fever was longer and cost of treatment was more than in the solid tumors.