Assessment of Pesticide, Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Existence around Galindez Island, and Comparison with the Organic Pollution Bibliography of the Antarctic Peninsula


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ERGÜL H. A. , Erdem T., Pelin E. G. , Tonay A. M. , AKSAN S. , Ozturk B.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.14, no.7, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su14073994
  • Title of Journal : SUSTAINABILITY
  • Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula, notothenioid fishes, pesticides, dl-PCBs, PAHs, Turkish polar program, KING GEORGE ISLAND, TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES, ADMIRALTY BAY, POLLUTANTS POPS, DL-PCBS, SEDIMENTS, ATMOSPHERE, PAHS, WATER

Abstract

Sediment, notothenioid fish, and moss samples were collected from the vicinity of Galindez Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral autumn of 2016 and 2017. Pesticide, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), and dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl (dl-PCB) concentrations were measured using High-Resolution Gas and Liquid Chromatography. Pollutant concentrations were below detection limits in sediment and moss samples. However, pesticides, PAH, and dl-PCB congeners were detected in the muscle tissue of fishes. Pesticide concentrations varied between 0.46 and 12.2 ng/g-dw, and Mecarbam was the dominant compound. Kresoxim-methyl, Mecarbam, Procymidone, Pyridaben, and Quinoxyfen were reported in the muscle tissue of the fishes, for the first time from the Antarctic. PCB-118, PCB-105, and PCB-156 were dominant dl-PCBs. The Sigma 12-dl-PCB concentration was 160,929 pg/g-dw, and WHO-TEQ-total dl-PCB was 8.30 pg/g-dw in Trematomus bernachii, over the consumable limit in fishes according to the European Commission. The PCB-126 concentration was 36 pg/g-dw in the muscle tissue of fish, the first reported from the Antarctic. Phenanthrene was the dominant PAH congener. The Sigma 16-PAH concentration was 22.5 ng/g-dw. PAH sources were local and petrogenic in the fishes, likely after long-term bioaccumulation. The flow rate is rather low around Galindez Island; accordingly, contaminant removal takes time and may demonstrate long-lasting effects including bioaccumulation in the marine food web.