Ribonuclease (RNase) is hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in RNA. RNases play an important role in the metabolism of cellular RNAs, such as mRNA and rRNA or tRNA maturation. Besides their cellular roles, RNases possess biological activity, cell stimulating properties, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Cytotoxic effect of particular microbial RNases was comparable to that of animal derived counterparts. In this respect, microbial RNases have a therapeutic potential as anti-tumor drugs. The significant development of DNA vaccines and the progress of gene therapy trials increased the need for RNases in downstream processes. In addition, RNases are used in different fields, such as food industry for single cell protein preparations, and in some molecular biological studies for the synthesis of specific nucleotides, identifying RNA metabolism and the relationship between protein structure and function. In some cases, the use of bovine or other animal-derived RNases have increased the difficulties due to the safety and regulatory issues. Microbial RNases have promising potential mainly for pharmaceutical purposes as well as downstream processing. Therefore, an effort has been given to determination of optimum fermentation conditions to maximize RNase production from different bacterial and fungal producers. Also immobilization or strain development experiments have been carried out.